Do you know that more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day worldwide. However, the majority of which are symptomless. In 2016, almost 1 million pregnant women were estimated to be infected with syphilis. This resulted in over 350 000 adverse birth outcomes. These figures are disturbing and worrisome for the whole world. The STDs are increasing day by day and people are unaware of this fact. For them Please read :- Know all about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
In this article you will read about the STIs in India
STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) and RTIs (Reproductive Tract Infections) are important serious public health problems in India. According to the prevalence study conducted during 2002-03 by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) shows that 6% of the adult population in India has one or more STI/RTI. This amounts to the occurrence of about 30-35 million episodes of STI/RTI every year in the country.
This shows that the new STIs occur amongst adolescents and young adults. They may not be aware that they have got the infection. This can have a negative impact upon their future sexual and reproductive health.
Management of STIs in India
Syndromic management is simple, assures rapid, same-day treatment, and avoids expensive or unavailable diagnostic tests.
National Guidelines on Prevention, Management and Control of Reproductive Tract Infections and Sexually Transmitted Infections” 2014 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India uses flowcharts to manage each syndrome.
These protocols for STIs help to ensure that all patients receive adequate treatment at all levels of health care services.
Effective treatment is currently available for several STIs.
- Three bacterial STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis) and one parasitic STI (trichomoniasis) are generally curable with existing, effective single dose regimens of antibiotics.
- For herpes and HIV, antiviral drugs are available that can modulate the course of the disease, though they cannot cure the disease.
- For hepatitis B, immune system modulators (interferon) and antiviral medications can help to fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
Education and Counseling
Counseling session includes these impotant issues:
- Educate the patient on his/her present STI. Inform the patient that bacterial STIs are curable, viral STIs may recur, and the effects of not taking treatment properly. Inform the partner(s) or spouse about the STI diagnosis.
- Assess the patient’s risk for HIV and decide whether or not to undergo testing for HIV.
- Help the patient to learn about complications of STIs, such as infertility and congenital syphilis.
- Inform the patient on how to deal with an incurable STI, such as herpes genitalis or genital warts, which may be transmitted to the partner (s) or spouse.
- Educate the patient on how to prevent future infections, including strategies for discussing and introducing condom use with the partner (s) or spouse.
- Tell the patient about confidentiality, disclosure and the risk of violence or stigmatizing reactions from spouse, partner(s), family or friends and ways to overcome these.
- Enable patients to take control of their own life and their responsibilities for disease prevention.
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