Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) established on 15 August 1969 is one of six government space agencies in the world. It possess full launch capabilities, deploy cryogenic engines, launch extraterrestrial missions and operate large fleets of artificial satellites. ISRO has the world’s largest constellation of remote-sensing satellites and operates the GAGAN and NAVIC satellite navigation systems. Here are the Top 10 Achievements of ISRO.
MOM (Mars Orbiter Mission) of ISRO
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan, was a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. It was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). That was India’s first interplanetary mission. This mission made it the fourth space agency to achieve Mars orbit, after Roscosmos, NASA, and the European Space Agency. India became the first Asian nation to reach Martian orbit. India is also the first nation in the world to do so on its maiden attempt.
India’s Space Shuttle
RLV-TD is India’s first uncrewed flying testbed developed for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Programme. It is a scaled down prototype of an eventual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle.
The RLV-TD successfully completed its first atmospheric test flight on 23 May 2016. The test lasted for 770 seconds and reached a maximum altitude of 65 kilometers (40 mi). It was designed to evaluate various technologies, and development of the final version is expected to take 10 to 15 years. The fully developed RLV is expected to take off vertically like a rocket, deploy a satellite in orbit, return to Earth, and land on a runway.
Chandrayaan-1 was the first Indian lunar probe under the Chandrayaan program. It was launched in October 2008, and operated until August 2009. The mission was a major boost to India’s space program, as India researched and developed indigenous technology to explore the Moon.
It was intended to survey the lunar surface over a two-year period. To produce a complete map of the chemical composition at the surface and three-dimensional topography. The polar regions are of special interest as they might contain water ice. Among its many achievements was the discovery of widespread presence of water molecules in lunar soil.
Total number of ISRO Launches
The Indian Space Research Organisation has carried out 116 spacecraft missions, 86 launch missions and planned several missions including the Aditya, Gaganyaan and MOM 2.
India has launched many missions which are named as
MOM (Mars Orbiter Mission)
Launching 104 Satellites in One Go
PSLV-C37 was the 39th mission of the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) program and its 16th mission in the XL configuration. PSLV-C37 successfully carried and deployed a record 104 satellites in sun-synchronous orbits. Launched on 15 February 2017 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. According to ISRO, the 101 international satellites were launched as part of a commercial arrangement between several firms and its commercial arm Antrix Corporation Limited, run under the auspices of the Indian Government’s Department of Space.
ISRO Balloon Experiment
The Balloon Experiment of ISRO which led to the discovery of the three new bacteria which cannot be found on earth. They are highly resistant to ultraviolet radiation and are found in the upper stratosphere. Three new species of bacteria, which are not found on earth and highly resistant to ultraviolet radiation. They have been discovered in the upper stratosphere by some Indian scientists.
One of the new species has been named as Janibacter Hoylei after the distinguished astrophysicist Fred Hoyle. The second bacteria has been named as Bacillus Isronensis recognising the contribution of ISRO in balloon experiments. It led to its discovery and the third bacterial bacillus Aryabhata. Named after India’s celebrated ancient astronomer Aryabhata and also the first satellite of ISRO.
The SLV-3 project was led under the leadership of A.P.J Abdul Kalam It was the first indigenous and experimental launch vehicle by India, so far only 6 agencies have done this including ISRO. Out of four launchers of SLV only two have been successful, which lead to the advance launch project such as PSLV,GSLV and ASLV.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). GSLV was used in fourteen launches from 2001 to 2021. Even though GSLV Mark III shares the name, it is an entirely different launch vehicle. As of August 12, 2021, rockets from the GSLV family have made 14 launches, resulting in 8 successes, four failures, and two partial failures. All launches have occurred from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, known before 2002 as the Sriharikota Range (SHAR).
Aryabhata was India’s first satellite, named after the famous Indian astronomer. It was launched on 19 April 1975 from Kapustin Yar, a Soviet rocket launch and development site in Astrakhan Oblast using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle. It was built by the ISRO, and launched by the Soviet Union as a part of the Soviet Interkosmos programme which provided access to space for friendly states.
Satellite navigation System
NavIC ( Navigation with Indian Constellation), is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by India. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area. An Extended Service Area lies between primary service area and area enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30 deg South to 50 deg North, Longitude 30 deg East to 130 deg East.
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